The actual energy scenery. Limits for current generation systems, and potential of energy storage. The load curve.
2. General aspects of energy storage
Conventional (classical) electrical energy storage: pump hydro power plants. Classification of energy storage technologies: flywheels, superconducting coils, CAES, batteries, ultracapacitors. Ragone Diagramms. Historic evolution of energy storage systems.
Constitutive parts of a battery. Different battery technologies: Ni, Li, Pb, flow batteries. Operation principle. Characteristic curves. Main parameters: capacity, state-of-charge, state-of-health. Equivalent circuits. Sizing a battery system. Series/parallel connection. Discharge times.
4. Fuel cells
Hydrogen economy: hydrogen as energy vector: suitability of hydrogen infraestructures, safety related issues, hydrogen storage. Constitutive parts of a fuel cell: stack, auxiliary systems (cooling, draining, etc). Avalaible fuel cell technologies: PEM, SOFC, AFC. Characteristic curves. Main parameters. Equivalent circuits. Sizing of a fuel cell system.
Constitutive parts and operation principle: load separation. Characteristic curves and equivalent circuit electrical parameters. Sizing of a ultracapacitor application: series/parallel connection. Calculation of discharge times.
6. Hybrid energy systems
Stationary applications: interface to main energy source or electrical network. Energy management for peak shaving, load shifting and load levelling. Transport applications: electric, and hybrid electric vehicles, Power flows and power share among different energy sources (ICE, FC, battery, UC). Suitability of each energy storage technology. base power, regenerative braking.