1.1. STRUCTURE OF MATTER
Atomic structure. Atomic magnitudes: atomic and mass number.
Electronic structure. Electronic distribution in energy levels: quantum numbers. Electronic configurations.
Organization of the elements in the periodic table. Periodic properties.
1.2. CHEMICAL BONDING
Definition of ionic, covalent, and metallic bonding.
Molecular geometry: Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory. Polarity of the molecules.
Valence bond theory. Hybridization of atomic orbitals (sp, sp2, sp3).
2.1. BASIC CONCEPTS
Mole Concept. Relationship between mass, mole, number of atoms, molecules, and ions.
2.2. MIXTURES AND SOLUTIONS
Ways of expressing the concentration of a solution.
Preparation of a solution.
2.3. CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Chemical equations. Balancing chemical equations. Stoichiometric calculations: reactants, products, wealth, and yields.
Limitant reactant in a chemical reaction.
Definition and relationship between the state functions; enthalpy (H), entropy (S), and Gibb¿s free energy (G).
Enthalpies of formation, reaction and bond. Hess¿ law.
3.2. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA
Characteristics of reversible chemical processes. Equilibrium concept and equilibrium constant (K). Determination of the different equilibrium constant expressions (Kc y Kp) for homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.
Determination of the relationship between equilibrium constants and thermodynamic parameters.
ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA. Transfer of protons.
Definition of acids and bases. Description of dissociation reaction of strong and weak acids and bases. Acid-base titration.
Determination of acid and base ionization constants (Ka and Kb). Determination of pH.
ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Transfer of electrons.
Balancing redox reactions by ion-electron method in acidic and basic media.
Structure and operation of galvanic cells. Identification of the anode and cathode in a cell. Standard reduction potential.