1.1. STRUCTURE OF MATTER
¿ Atomic structure. Atomic magnitudes: atomic and mass number.
¿ Electronic structure. Electronic distribution in energy levels: quantum numbers. Electronic configurations.
¿ Organization of the elements in the periodic table. Periodic properties.
1.2. CHEMICAL BONDING
¿ Definition of ionic, covalent, and metallic bonding.
¿ Lewis structures.
¿ Molecular geometry: Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory. Polarity of the molecules.
¿ Valence bond theory. Hybridization of atomic orbitals (sp, sp2, sp3).
2.1. INORGANIC FORMULATION
¿ Nomenclature of inorganic compounds.
¿ Examples of the most common inorganic compounds.
2.2. ORGANIC FORMULATION
¿ Classification of the main organic functional groups.
¿ Nomenclature of organic compounds.
¿ Examples of the most common organic compounds.
3.1. BASIC CONCEPTS
¿ Mole Concept. Relationship between mass, mole, number of atoms, molecules, and ions.
3.2. MIXTURES AND SOLUTIONS
¿ Ways of expressing the concentration of a solution.
¿ Preparation of a solution.
3.3. CHEMICAL REACTIONS
¿ Chemical equations. Balancing chemical equations. Stoichiometric calculations: reactants, products, wealth, and yields.
¿ Limitant reactant in a chemical reaction.
¿ Definition and relationship between the state functions; enthalpy (H), entropy (S), and Gibb¿s free energy (G).
¿ Enthalpies of formation, reaction and bond. Hess¿ law.
4.2. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA
¿ Characteristics of reversible chemical processes. Equilibrium concept and equilibrium constant (K). Determination of the different equilibrium constant expressions (Kc y Kp) for homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.
¿ Determination of the relationship between equilibrium constants and thermodynamic parameters.
ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA. Transfer of protons.
¿ Definition of acids and bases. Description of dissociation reaction of strong and weak acids and bases. Acid-base titration.
¿ Determination of acid and base ionization constants (Ka and Kb). Determination of pH.
¿ Buffer solutions. Henderson-Hasselbach equation.
ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Transfer of electrons.
¿ Oxidation-reduction concept.
¿ Balancing redox reactions by ion-electron method in acidic and basic media.
¿ Structure and operation of galvanic cells. Identification of the anode and cathode in a cell. Standard reduction potential.