Checking date: 12/02/2024

Course: 2024/2025

Introduction to biomedical image
Bachelor in Engineering Physics (Plan: 434 - Estudio: 363)

Coordinating teacher: RIPOLL LORENZO, JORGE

Department assigned to the subject: Bioengineering Department

Type: Electives
ECTS Credits: 6.0 ECTS


Requirements (Subjects that are assumed to be known)
It is strongly advised to have completed Physics I and II. It is also very beneficial, but not compulsory, if Differential equations and Numerical Methods in Biomedicine have been completed. No prior knowledge on optics or image formation is required.
The student that successfully finishes this course will have an advanced understanding of image formation and how contrast, resolution and signal to noise ratio affects image quality, the quantitative information it may deliver and its interpretation. These main aspects of imaging (resolution, contrast, and quantification) will be studied within different imaging modalities, either currently used in medical imaging or under development for their future implementation in the clinic. Once this course has been completed the student should be able to discuss and defend which imaging modalities are more appropriate for a specific instance, and why. In particular, it is expected that each student will have a good understanding of what each imaging approach can deliver in terms of sensitivity, resolution and quantitation; within the skills acquired the student should be able to second an imaging or combined set of imaging approaches for current medical imaging scenarios.
Skills and learning outcomes
CB1. Students have demonstrated possession and understanding of knowledge in an area of study that builds on the foundation of general secondary education, and is usually at a level that, while relying on advanced textbooks, also includes some aspects that involve knowledge from the cutting edge of their field of study. CB2. Students are able to apply their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional manner and possess the competences usually demonstrated through the development and defence of arguments and problem solving within their field of study. CB3. Students have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within their field of study) in order to make judgements which include reflection on relevant social, scientific or ethical issues. CB4. Students should be able to communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist audiences. CB5. Students will have developed the learning skills necessary to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy. CG2. Learn new methods and technologies from basic scientific and technical knowledge, and being able to adapt to new situations. CG3. Solve problems with initiative, decision making, creativity, and communicate and transmit knowledge, skills and abilities, understanding the ethical, social and professional responsibility of the engineering activity. Capacity for leadership, innovation and entrepreneurial spirit. CG4. Solve mathematical, physical, chemical, biological and technological problems that may arise within the framework of the applications of quantum technologies, nanotechnology, biology, micro- and nano-electronics and photonics in various fields of engineering. CG5. Use the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired in the definition, approach and resolution of problems in the framework of the exercise of their profession. CG6. Develop new products and services based on the use and exploitation of new technologies related to physical engineering. CG7. Undertake further specialized studies, both in physics and in the various branches of engineering. CT1. Work in multidisciplinary and international teams as well as organize and plan work making the right decisions based on available information, gathering and interpreting relevant data to make judgments and critical thinking within the area of study. RA1. To have acquired sufficient knowledge and proved a sufficiently deep comprehension of the basic principles, both theoretical and practical, and methodology of the more important fields in science and technology as to be able to work successfully in them. RA2. To be able, using arguments, strategies and procedures developed by themselves, to apply their knowledge and abilities to the successful solution of complex technological problems that require creating and innovative thinking. RA3. To be able to search for, collect and interpret relevant information and data to back up their conclusions including, whenever needed, the consideration of any social, scientific and ethical aspects relevant in their field of study. RA4. To be able to successfully manage themselves in the complex situations that might arise in their academic or professional fields of study and that might require the development of novel approaches or solutions. RA6. To be aware of their own shortcomings and formative needs in their field of specialty, and to be able to plan and organize their own training with a high degree of independence.
Description of contents: programme
1. Physical Principles of Image Acquisition and Formation. Sensors. 2. Resolution, Contrast and Noise in Image Formation 3. Current Laser Technology and Biomedical Applications 4. Interaction of Light with Cells and Tissues 5. Principles of Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy 6. Functional Imaging: Ultrasound and Optics combined 7. Nonlinear Optical Imaging 8. Deep tissue imaging 9. Other Imaging Modalities and Imaging Displays Transversal content: The structure of a business plan, the canvas and SWOT matrix. The structure of a research proposal. Matlab/Octave programming.
Learning activities and methodology
LECTURES: Due to the large amount of topics covered and their multidisciplinary nature, it is strongly advised that the student reads the recommended chapters or sections before the class. These will be provided at least one week in advance. 1) Lectures: During the lectures the proposed topic will be presented, always encouraging discussion. 2) Discussion Sessions: When the topic allows it, discussion sessions will be held to solve particular problems related to the current topic with the main idea of understanding the system and developing different strategies to solve it, underlining the fact that there are almost always different approaches to the same problem. 3) Biomedical Project. In individual groups the students will develop the project for a technology based company for biomedical applications which makes use of biomedical imaging approaches. 4) Oral Presentations: At least once during the course each student will have the chance to do a short oral presentation on a topic related to the Biomedical Project chosen. These oral presentations will have a duration of approx. 10-20 minutes per student. HOMEWORK: Recommended research papers will have to be studied prior to each other's student oral presentation. Data analysis and representation for the laboratory sessions will need good skills in matlab/octave. LABORATORY SESSIONS: Each experiment will be performed in individual groups. During these sessions simple experiments will be done to understand the basics of light transport in tissues, and how scattering affects image quality in microscopy, with emphasis on 3D microscopy. The main goal during these sessions is to understand the physics behind the experiment and how it relates to the theory we presented during the lectures, to obtain rigorous experimental data, and to have a clear understanding on the basis of image formation. Different software for 3D data analysis will be used, mostly Matlab (or Octave) and ImageJ.
Assessment System
  • % end-of-term-examination 40
  • % of continuous assessment (assigments, laboratory, practicals...) 60

Extraordinary call: regulations
Basic Bibliography
  • David Boas, Constantinos Pitris and Nimmi Ramanujam. Handbook of Biomedical Optics. CRC press. 2011
  • Markus Rudin. Molecular Imaging: Principles And Applications In Biomedical Research. Imperial College Press. 2005
Additional Bibliography
  • Douglas B. Murphy and Michael W. Davidson. Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. Wiley-Blackwell. 2012
  • Paras N. Prasad. Introduction to Biophotonics. Wiley. 2003

The course syllabus may change due academic events or other reasons.