1. Introduction. Historical background on surgical navigation.
History of navigation and image guided surgery.
2. Tracking systems.
Mechanical, optical and magnetic tracking systems: operating principles, advantages and limitations.
3. Image registration.
Need and definition of the image registration.Landmark-based registration; methods based on surfaces and volumes: Procrustes, ICP, Mutual Information. Accuracy measurements and error estimation.
4. Clinical applications of navigation.
Examples of applications in neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery and traumatology, training of clinical staff, acquisition and fusion of ultrasound, radiotherapy ...
5. Detection and improvement of workflow in surgery.
Algorithms for estimation of workflow in surgery. Automatic analysis of video sequences.
6. Augmented reality in surgery.
Technical bases of augmented reality and virtual systems. Required hardware. Application development tools.
7. Endoscopy and other optical techniques.
Device requirements in endoscopy. Surgical microscope. Use of infrared image in surgery.
8. 3D printing in the clinical setting.
Background on 3D printing. Printing technologies. From the image to the printed model. Utility of customized phantoms. Clinical applications.
9. Development tools in image-guided surgery.
Libraries and protocols: VTK, DCMTK, PLUS, OpenIGTLink .. 3DSlicer environment with Python. Development of specific modules.