1. The origins of the modern state and the formation of the system of States in the Modern Age.
2. Formation of Nation-States, nationalisms and first empiralisms.
3. Revolutions, new elites and social change in the 19th century: The French Revolution, American Independence, the new social and political regime and the rise of the Bourgeoisie.
4. Urbanization, industrialization, capitalism, worker movements and the extension of suffrage.
5. The Modern State, secularization and the modern world.
6. Professionalization of bureaucracy, transnational movements, progressive ideology, and political and military rivalry.
7. Wars and the weakness of the international political system during the interwar period.
8. The Russian Revolution, the crisis of capitalism during the Great Depression and the rise of fascism.
9. New world order, cold war, and the strengthening of the Welfare State.
11. Structural and social change.
12. The world after the fall of the socialist block: political challenges of globalization.
13. Global society and the clash of civilizations.