Concept and alternative definitions and related measures. Transitions of developing country to emerging country and on to developed countries. Emerging countries in the world economy, economic specialization, foreign investment, economic policy, and migration. State and political institutions in emerging countries: political regimes, representative institutions, politicization of bureaucracy and legal systems, recruitment of political elites. political (in)stability and governability. Challenges of emerging countries: political economy and sustainable development in middle-income countries; development, growth, increased economic inequalities at the individual, regional and rural-urban level, and policies to manage it. The formation and consolidation of middle classes and their economic, social and political implications. Growth and environmental challenges on a regional, national and international level. Economic development and political systems and institutions.