Regulatory discourses tend to propose conservative schemes in the language in different situations. They are not issued alone or primarily by academies, but by those with power in certain instances. The family, for example, constantly issues policy speeches: issues that must be said at the table and issues that should not be named, words not to be said in public, etc. The different groups and institutions that organize social life emit normative discourses: things that can be named in public discourses and things that cannot be named, ways to name people in public, what linguistic varieties can or can't be used, how and in what contexts, etc.
Linguistic ecology seeks to account for the conditions under which the functioning of linguistic mechanisms is forced by certain groups, which impose semantic, phonetic or syntactic organizational schemes in favour of their own interests. That is, the actual use of the language is proposed under different sociological conditions by different actors who manage it as an instrument of their interests. The normative balance is presented in the face of the breaking of the standard and the relationship between all normative discourses, and the social use of the language that conditions its stability and evolution is studied.
It is now debated whether the normative discourses of academies, opinion institutes and other centres of social power aimed at controlling the language in the face of the normative discourses of social groups and, above all, the most powerful and influential of the media, business and political propaganda, are useful. An example is the proliferation of English terms in other languages, like Spanish: many authors raise their voices against what they consider a plague; others consider that the system itself has a certain self-regulating capacity and that no normative discourse will be able to regulate the entry of English words into Spanish.
Linguistic ecology also cares about the health of languages. This depends not only on the specific expressions of the speakers, but on the institutional and physical means on which it relies in this globalized world. In this sense, it is advisable to consider the dissemination of Spanish in the media, the geography of Spanish, the use of Spanish in international organizations, its history, the situation of its teaching in non-Spanish-speaking countries, and also its coexistence with other linguistic varieties.
The program of this subject will be as follows:
LESSON 1. The construction of the norm and norms
1.2. The Royal Spanish Academy and the creation of the Spanish standard. The management of variation. The literary language as a mirror.
1.3. Example of normative discourse.
1.4. The situation of the different languages before the norm
1.5. The dissemination of Spanish:
1.5.1. Spanish in traditional media
1.5.2. New media
1.5.3. An example: the chat language
1.5.4. The language of advertising
LESSON 2. Ecology in languages
2.2. Linguistic sustainability
2.3. Substitution and extinction of languages
2.4. Languages in contact. Pidgins and Creole languages
2.5. Neology. English words
LESSON 3. Academic language
3.1. Linguistics properties of academic texts
3.2. Academic genres
LESSON 4. Linguistic Policy
4.1. Language policy and planning
4.2. Political correction and public discourse. Administrative euphemism.
LESSON 5. Linguistic sexism
5.1. Sexism and language
5.2. The generic male
5.3. Sexist meanings of some Spanish words
LESSON 6. Euphemism and Dysphemism
6.1. Manipulation of the referent: euphemism and disphemism
6.1.1. Taboo and interdiction
6.2. Discourtesy strategies in the media
6.3. Verbal hostility in social networks: cyberspeak; netiquette