Course: 2024/2025

Heat Transfer

(18712)

Requirements (Subjects that are assumed to be known)

Thermal Engineering (2nd course)

By the end of this content area, students will be able to have:
1. a systematic understanding of the key aspects and concepts of heat and mass transfer, and the perfomance of heat exchangers.
2. the ability to apply their knowledge and understanding to identify, formulate and solve problems of heat and mass transfer using established methods;
3. the ability to select and apply relevant analytic and modelling methods in heat transfer.
4. the ability to apply their knowledge and understanding to develop and realise designs of thermal systems to meet defined and specified requirements;
5. an understanding of design methodologies in heat transfer, and an ability to use them.
6. the ability to design and conduct appropriate experiments in heat transfer, interpret the data and draw conclusions;
7. the ability to select and use appropriate equipment, tools and methods to solve problems of heat transfer;
8. the ability to combine theory and practice to solve problems of heat and mass transfer;
9. an understanding of applicable techniques and methods in heat transfer, and of their limitations.

Skills and learning outcomes

CB1. Students have demonstrated possession and understanding of knowledge in an area of study that builds on the foundation of general secondary education, and is usually at a level that, while relying on advanced textbooks, also includes some aspects that involve knowledge from the cutting edge of their field of study.
CB2. Students are able to apply their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional manner and possess the competences usually demonstrated through the development and defence of arguments and problem solving within their field of study.
CB3. Students have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within their field of study) in order to make judgements which include reflection on relevant social, scientific or ethical issues.
CB4. Students should be able to communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist audiences.
CB5. Students will have developed the learning skills necessary to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy.
CG10. Being able to work in a multi-lingual and multidisciplinary environment
CE1 Módulo CRI. Knowledge of the basic principles of thermal engineering and their application to the solution of problems in this field.
CE1 Módulo TE. Applied knowledge on thermal engineering.
CT1. Ability to communicate knowledge orally as well as in writing to a specialized and non-specialized public.
CT2. Ability to establish good interpersonal communication and to work in multidisciplinary and international teams.
CT3. Ability to organize and plan work, making appropriate decisions based on available information, gathering and interpreting relevant data to make sound judgement within the study area.
CT4. Motivation and ability to commit to lifelong autonomous learning to enable graduates to adapt to any new situation.
By the end of this content area, students will be able to have:
RA1.1 knowledge and understanding of the scientific principles underlying advanced issues in thermal engineering and fluid mechanics.
RA1.2 a systematic understanding of the key aspects and concepts of heat transfer.
RA1.3 coherent knowledge of their branch of engineering including some at the forefront of thermal engineering and fluid mechanics.
RA1.4 awareness of the wider multidisciplinary context of engineering.
RA2.1 the ability to apply their knowledge and understanding to identify, formulate and solve advanced problems within the field of thermal engineering and fluid mechanics using established methods.
RA2.3 the ability to select and apply relevant analytic and modelling methods in the field of thermal engineering and fluid mechanics.
RA3.1 the ability to apply their knowledge and understanding to develop and realise designs to meet defined and specified requirements within the field of thermal engineering and fluid mechanics.
RA3.2 an understanding of design methodologies, and an ability to use them.
RA4.1 the ability to conduct searches of literature, and to use data bases and other sources of information.
RA5.1 the ability to select and use appropriate equipment, tools and methods.
RA5.2 the ability to combine theory and practice to solve advanced problems of heat transfer.
RA5.3 an advanced understanding of applicable techniques and methods within the field of thermal engineering and fluid mechanics, and of their limitations;
RA6.1 function effectively as an individual and as a member of a team.

Description of contents: programme

1. Introduction to convection heat transfer. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2. Boundary layer in convective processes: hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer, laminar and turbulent flow. 1.3 Boundary layer equations. 1.4 Non-dimensional equations of convective processes: Reynolds number, Nusselt number. 1.5 Turbulent boundary layer.
2. External flow: 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Determination of convection heat transfer coefficients. 2.3 Correlations for flat plates in parallel flow Laminar and turbulent flow, Critical Reynolds number), cylinders and spheres in cross flow, non-circular cylinders, tube bank and impinging jets.
3. Internal flow. 3.1 Hydrodynamics: laminar and turbulent flow, critical Reynolds number, fully developed conditions, pressure drop in tubes. 3.2 Thermal aspects. 3.3 Energy balance: constant surface heat flux, constant surface temperature, external flow; the log mean temperature difference. 3.4 Internal flow correlations.
4. Free convection. 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Conservation equations: introduction of the buoyancy force in the conservation equations. 4.3 Non-dimensional equations: Grashof and Rayleigh numbers, transition to turbulent flow in a vertical surface, combines free and forces convection. 4.4 Correlations: external free convection, free convection within parallel plate channels and enclosures.
5. Boiling and condensation. 5.1 Introduction: non-dimensional parameters 5.2 Boiling: pool boiling, forced convection boiling. 5.3 Condensation: film condensation on a vertical plate, film condensation on tubes and spheres, condensation on a vertical tier of tubes, film condensation in horizontal tubes, drop condensation on a horizontal surface.
6. Heat exchangers. 6.1 Types of heat exchangers, parallel and counter-current heat exchangers. 6.2 Global heat transfer coefficient and total thermal resistance. 6.3 Heat exchanger analysis: log-mean temperature difference, Epsilon-NTU method, P-NTU method, characteristic curves. 6.4 Shell-and-tube heat exchangers. 6.5 Plate heat exchanger. 6.6 Cross-flow heat exchangers and compact heat exchangers.
7. Psychometry. 7.1 Moist air. 7.2 Moist content parameters. 7.3 Mass and energy balance, mixture enthalpy. 7.4 Air saturation processes: dew point, adiabatic saturation temperature, wet-bulb temperature. 7.5 Psychometric charts. 7.6 Psychrometric applications: sensible heating/cooling, humidification, evaporative cooling, dehumidification, adiabatic mixing and cooling towers.
8. Radiation. 8.1 Introduction to thermal radiation. 8.2 Black body radiation. 8.3 Radiation intensity and radiation power. 8.4 Real surfaces radiation: emissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity, transmissivity. Kirchhoff´s law. 8.5 Solar radiation. Net radiation exchange at a surface. 8.6 Radiation exchange between surfaces: view factor relations, net radiation exchange between black surfaces, net radiation exchange between gray diffuse surfaces, radiation network, application examples (radiation shields, the reradiating surface), and multimode heat transfer.

Learning activities and methodology

- Lectures on theory and applications.
- Solving problems individually and in groups.
- Lab (computer rooms).
All of the activities are aimed at obtaining general and specific skills listed above.

Assessment System

- % end-of-term-examination 60
- % of continuous assessment (assigments, laboratory, practicals...) 40

Calendar of Continuous assessment

Extraordinary call: regulations

Basic Bibliography

- Incropera F.P., DeWitt D.P., Bergman T.L., Lavine A.S.. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. John Wiley & Sons. 2007
- Moran M.J, Shapiro H.N.. Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics : SI version . John Wiley & Sons. 2010

Additional Bibliography

- G.F. Hewitt, G.L. Shires and T.R. Bott.. Process heat transfer. CRC Press. 2000
- Adrian Bejan. Convection heat transfer. Wiley. 2013
- Jhon H. Lienhard IV, Jhon H. Lienhard V. A heat transfer textbook. Avalaible online . http://web.mit.edu/lienhard/www/ahtt.html

The course syllabus may change due academic events or other reasons.