1. Refrigeration and Heat Generation
Vapor compression cycle. Refrigerants and environmental impact. Coefficient of performance (COP). Components: compressor, condenser, evaporator. Two-stage compression. Auxiliary equipment.
Heat pumps. Low-temperature geothermal energy. Boilers and furnaces: natural gas, fuel-oil, biomass, electric. District heating. Combined heat and power (CHP).
Integration of renewable energy systems. Solar cooling (absorption machine). Evaporative cooling.
2. Energy in Buildings
Building energy use, environmental impact and sustainability. Energy sources, primary/final energy, CO2 emissions.
Regulations and standards. Código Técnico de la Edificación, documento básico de Ahorro de Energía (CTE HE). European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD), energy certification of new and existing buildings, energy label, nearly zero energy buildings (nZEB). Reglamento de instalaciones térmicas en los edificios (RITE). Energy audit.
3. Thermal Loads
Outdoor design conditions, climatic zones, typical meteorological year (TMY). Indoor comfort conditions, air quality, ventilation (CTE-HS3). Hygrometry, psychrometric chart.
Heat transfer through building envelope. Materials, thermal insulation, and constructions. Overal heat transfer coefficient, U-value.
Passive heating and cooling, bioclimatic design. Fenestrations, glazings, shadings, solar heat gains.
Heating and cooling loads. Internal loads. Sensible and latent heat. Selection of equipment.
4. HVAC Systems
Applications in buildings, industry, and transport.
Heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration systems (HVAC). Service hot water (SHW). Thermal storage.
Transport and distribution of energy. Centralized vs. decentralized systems, zoning. Terminal elements.
Air-and-water systems, fan-coils. All-water systems: pumps, pipes, radiators, radiant panels. All-air systems: air handling unit (AHU), fans, ducts, diffusors. Sizing.