Introduction. Dimensional Analysis
- Definition of a turbomachine. Different kinds and applications.
- Main defining variables, dimensions and fluid properties. Units.
- Dimensional analysis and performance laws. Compressible flow analysis. Specific speed: machine selection. Model testing.
Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics equations
- Equations in integral form.
- Euler equations for turbomachines.
- Definition of Rothalpy.
- Definition of adiabatic / polytropic efficiency. Enthalpy-entropy diagrams.
- Equations in differential form.
- Introduction. Definition of streamsurface, m¿-¿ plane, blade-to-blade analysis.
- Cascade nomenclature for compressors and turbines.
- Cascade kinematics: velocity triangles. Cascade dynamics: forces, momentum. Cascade entalphy and entropy change: losses.
- Compressor cascade performance. Compressor characteristics: enthalpy rise, pressure recovery, deflection, deviation and loss. Blade loading: surface velocity distribution, diffusion factor. Compressor cascade correlations: optimum solidity, polar curve. Diffusor efficiency.
- Turbine cascade performance. Turbine characteristics: turning angle, Zweifel coefficient. Surface velocity distribution: Back Surface Diffusion parameter. Turbine cascade correlations: loss, optimum pitch-chord ratio.
- Cascade wind tunnel testing. Description of tunnels, measurements. Unsteadiness.
Axial flow turbines: two-dimensional stage theory
- Dimensional analysis of a single turbine stage. Velocity triangles, loading and flow parameters, reaction. Repeating stage hypothesis.
- Thermodynamics of a turbine stage. Total-to-total stage efficiency. Row loss-stage efficiency relation
- Reaction. Effect on efficiency. Optimum reaction
- Smith chart. Empirical versus reversible.
- Flow characteristics of a multistage turbine.
- Stress/Cooling/Detailed design. Design criteria.
Axial flow compressors and fans: two-dimensional stage theory
- Dimensional analysis of a single compressor stage. Velocity triangles, loading and flow parameters, reaction. Repeating stage hypothesis.
- Thermodynamics of a compressor stage. Total-to-total stage efficiency. Row loss-stage efficiency relation.
- Loading-Flow coefficient chart. Reaction choice. Lift and Drag in terms of ¿ and ¿. Diffusion Factor and solidity selection. Estimation of compressor efficiency. Simplify off-design performance.
- Blade element theory.
- Stall and surge phenomena.
Three-dimensional flow in Axial Turbomachines
- Theory of radial equilibrium. The indirect problem: free-vortex flow, forced-vortex flow, general whirl distribution. The direct problem.
- Compressible flow through a blade-row.
- Constant specific mass flow.
- Off-design performance of a stage (free-vortex turbine).
- Actuator disc approach. Blade-row interactions. Computer methods solving through-flow problem.
- Secondary flows. Loss, angles and helicity.
- Three-dimensional losses. Types and models.
- Three-dimensional design features. Lean, sweep and bow.
Centrifugal compressors, fans and pumps
- Introduction and definitions. Centrifugal compressor parts.
- Theoretical analysis of a centrifugal compressor. Dimension-less performance parameters. Inlet, impeller and diffuser equations.
- Optimum design of a centrifugal compressor inlet.
- Radial flow turbo-machine blading design/selection
- Slip factor. Correlations.
- Performance of centrifugal compressors.
- Diffuser system. Vane and vane-less diffusers.
- Chocking in centrifugal compressor stage.
- Introduction. Types of inward flow radial turbine.
- Thermodynamics of the 90 degrees IFR turbine
- Basic rotor design. Rotor efficiency definition. Mach number relations. Loss coefficients.
- Optimum efficiency considerations. Minimum number of blades.
- Design criteria. Pressure ratio limits.