Topic 01.- The atom and its periodic properties
- Introduction. Electromagnetic radiation. Wave-particle duality. Bohr's atomic model. Concept of probability. Schrodinger approximation.
- Atomic orbitals. Energy of orbitals. Order of filling atomic orbitals. Exceptions to the filling rule. Electronic configuration in monoatomic ions.
- Periodic properties Atomic radii Ionic radius Ionisation energy Electronic affinity Electronegativity.
Topic 02.- Chemical Bonding
- Ionic bonding. Crystalline structure. Properties of Ionic Compounds.
- The Covalent Bond. Ionic character of the covalent bond. Polarity of molecules. Valence bond theory. Hybridisation.
- Metallic bonding. Structure of the metallic bond.
- Intermolecular forces.
Topic 03.- States of Matter. Gases, Liquids and Solids.
- Gases. Kinetic theory of gases. Mixtures of Ideal Gases:
- Changes of state. Vapour-liquid equilibrium. Variation of vapour pressure with temperature. Clausius equation. Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
- Phase diagram.
Topic 04.- Dissolutions and Colligative Properties.
- Introduction. Ways of expressing concentration.
- Solubility. Factors that influence solubility. Solubility of gases. Henry's law. Partition law.
- Ideal gas solubility. Raoult's law Deviations from Raoult's law.
- Boiling point diagrams. Distillation Freezing point diagrams
- Colligative properties Decrease in vapour pressure. Increase in boiling temperature. Decrease in melting/freezing temperature. Osmotic pressure.
Topic 05.- Thermochemistry
- Definition of Thermochemistry and Types of Systems
- State Functions
- Heat, Enthalpy and Heat Capacity.
- Enthalpy and chemical reactions.
- Indirect determination of enthalpies: Hess' Law
- The first principle of thermodynamics: Heat, Work and Enthalpy.
- The second principle of thermodynamics: Entropy and disorder, Spontaneity, reversibility and equilibrium.
- Absolute Entropy and the third principle
- Free energy and spontaneity
Topic 06.- Chemical equilibrium.
- Reversible reactions.
- Equilibrium constants.
- Homogeneous equilibria.
- Heterogeneous equilibria.
- Factors affecting chemical equilibrium.
Topic 07.- Acid-base equilibria and solubility.
- Acid-base definitions. Arrhenius theory. Bronsted-Lowry theory. Lewis theory.
- Acid-base properties of water. Acid, basic and neutral solutions.
- Strength of acids and bases Relationship between acidity constant and basicity constant.
- Common ion effect. Buffer solutions
- Solubility Solubility product Precipitation reactions Effect of common ion on solubility.
- Industrial examples.
Topic 08- Electrochemistry.
- Concept of Oxidation and Reduction.
- Types of Batteries.
- Applications of galvanic cells.
- Applications of electrolytic cells. Faraday's Law.
- Potentials of Redox Processes.
- Spontaneity of Redox Processes.
- Effect of Concentration on Potential.
- Corrosion stacks Cathodic protection and passivation.
Topic 09.- Chemical Kinetics.
- Reaction rate.
- Rate laws and reaction order
- Arrhenius Law
- Reaction mechanisms
- Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
- Chemical reactors
Topic 10.- Introduction to Chemical Engineering
- Concept and fundamentals of Chemical Engineering.
- Transport phenomena.
- Balances of matter.
- Main basic physical operations.
Topic 11.- Introduction to Organic Chemistry.
- Identification of the families of organic compounds. Nomenclature of organic compounds.
- Hydrocarbons. Description of the bond in saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Nomenclature and formulation of hydrocarbons. Physical properties of aliphatic hydrocarbons
- Types of organic reactions. Reaction intermediates: radical, carbocation and carbanion. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
- Main sources of hydrocarbons: petroleum, natural gas and coal.
- Petroleum processing Industrial use of fossil fuels
- Alcohols, phenols and ethers. Properties, methods of production. Applications
- Aldehydes and ketones. Properties, reactivity.
- Organic acids. Properties, reactivity. Polymerisation.