Course: 2020/2021

Automata and formal language theory

(13877)

Students are expected to have completed

Programming
Algorithms and Data Structures

Competences and skills that will be acquired and learning results. Further information on this link

The aim of this course is that students acquire the following skills:
EURO-ACE SKILLS
1. Basic competences
CB5: Learning abilities required to undertake later studies with a high degree of autonomy.
2. Transverse and generic competences
CGB3. Ability to understand and control basic concepts of Discrete mathematics, Logics, Algorithms and Computational Complexity, and their application for the resolution of problems related to Engineering.
3. Common competences to Computer Science.
CECRI6. Knowledge and application of basic algorithms and procedures of Computer Science to design solutions to problems, and analyze the suitability and complexity of the proposed algorithms.
CECRI15. Knowledge and application of basic techniques and principles of intelligent systems and their practical application.
ABET SKILLS
1.Transverse (Generic) competences
- Ability to analyze and
synthesize. PO: a,c,e,g
- Problem solving. PO: a,c,e
- Critical Reasoning. PO: a,c,e,g,h,k
- Teamwork PO: g
- Written communication. PO: g
- Automate processes. PO: a,c,e,h,k
2.Specific competences for Learning
a.Cognitive (To Know).
PO: a
- Understand the theories to describe formal languages.
- Understand the concept of formal grammar and their types, as well as the
type of language.
- Understand the concept of finite automaton as a regular language
recognizer.
- Understand the concept of regular expression as a description of a
regular language.
- Understand the concept of a pushdown automata to recognize any
context-free language
- Understand the relation between grammars, languages and recognizers.
- Understand the principles and operation of a Turing Machine
and its different types.
- Understand the concept of computational complexity.
To know the methods to calculate the computational complexity.
- Understand the concept of P and NP complexity classes.
- Understand the limits of computation
b.Procedural
- Assess how to address a problem of recognition of words for a certain grammar.
PO: c,e,g
- Elaborate correctly the phases for the construction of a recognizer, from the
description of the grammar to the design of the automaton.
PO: a
- Combine and extrapolate the acquired knowledge about developing a lexical or
syntactic recognizer for a grammar.
PO: a,c,e,g,h,k
- Skills to assess the efficiency of a given automaton in the task of recognizing
a specific, also to discern whether the automaton is minimal or not.
PO: a,c,e,g
- Practical application of theoretical models of the exposed computation/calculation
devices (Grammars, Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata, and Turing machines) for
solving problems or arithmetic computation.
PO: a,e,g
- To know the methods to calculate the computational complexity of an algorithms,
an automaton or a Turing machine.
PO: a,e,g
- Ability to transform a formal statement into a informal statement.
PO: a,e,g
3.- Attitude (To be)
- Ability to analyze computational problems and its solutions.
- Concern on quality.

Description of contents: programme

1.Introduction to the theory of automata and formal languages.
1.1. Why study Automata Theory. History and Origins
1.2. Relationship with others Areas of Knowledge
1.3. Machines, Languages and Algorithms.
2.- Automata Theory
2.1 Introduction and Definitions.
2.2 Mathematical model of an automaton
2.3 Automata and algorithms.
2.4 Discrete, continuous, and hybrid automata. Classes of automata.
3.Finite Automata
3.1 Definition and Representation of Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA)
3.2. DFA as Recognition Device
3.3. Equivalence and Minimization of DFA
3.4. Theorems of DFA
3.5. Definition and Representation of Nondeterministic Finite Automata (NDFA)
3.6. The Language of a NDFA
3.7. Equivalence of DFA and NDFA
4.Languages and Formal Grammars.
4.1. Operations with Words. Operations with Languages. Derivations.
4.2 Concept of Grammar. Formal Grammar.
4.3. Chomsky Hierarchy and Equivalent Grammar
4.4 Context-Free Grammar
4.5. Language of a Context-Free Grammar. Parse Tree
4.6. Well-Formed Grammar
4.7. Chomsky Normal Form. Greibach Normal Form
5.Regular Languages.
5.1. Definition of Regular Languages
5.2. DFA for a Regular Grammar
5.3. Equivalence of Regular Expressions
5.4. Kleene's Theorem
5.5. Characteristic equations
5.6. Synthesis Problem: Recursive Algorithm
5.7. Derivatives of Regular Expressions
6.Pushdown Automata.
6.1. Definition of Pushdown Automata (PDA).
6.2. Transitions, Movement and Instantaneous Description in PDA.
6.3. Acceptance by Empty Stack. Acceptance by Final State.
6.4. Language Accepted by a PDA.
Equivalence of PDA by Empty Stack and PDA by Final State.
6.5. From Context-Free Grammar to Push-Down Automata.
6.6. From Pushdown Automata to Context-Free Grammar.
7.Turing Machine.
5.1. Definition if Turing Machine.
5.2. Variations of Turing Machine.
5.3. Universal Turing Machine.
8. Compilers
8.1. Syntactic Analysis
8.2. Code generation

Learning activities and methodology

Theoretical lectures: 1.5 ECTS.
PO: a,c,e,g
These clases constitute a guide for students to achieve cognitive skills, and acquire
the basic elements to develop procedural skills. A part of the ECTS corresponds to the
load of autonomous work carried out by the students.
Exercices and practical classes (Exercises, Problems and Practices): 2 ECTS.
They contribute to the development of the generic competences and the application of the
attitude ones. These classes consist on developing and solving practical cases (exercises,
problems and practices) which are aimed at achieving the procedural competences.
An important part of the ECTS corresponds to the autonomous work of the student.
PO: a,c,e,g,h,k
Other academic activities
- Present teacher: 0.5 ECTS.
Resolution of small questions, exercises, and practical work that will compute for
the final grade obtained by the students. Part of the ECTS corresponds to a review of
the contents of the field carried out by the student.
PO: a,c,e,g,h,k
- Absent teacher: 1.5 ECTS.
Readings about the field as well as exercises, problems and practices related to the
theoretical lectures and practical classes.
PO: a,c,e,g,h,k
Exam: 0.5 ECTS
Preparation and realization of the examination, in which the level achieved by the
student in relation to the established competences is assessed.

Assessment System

- % end-of-term-examination 50
- % of continuous assessment (assigments, laboratory, practicals...) 50

Basic Bibliography

- Enrique Alfonseca Cubero, Manuel Alfonseca Cubero, Roberto Moriyón Salomón.. Teoría de autómatas y lenguajes formales.. McGraw-Hill (2007)..
- John E. Hopcroft, Rajeev Motwani, Jeffrey D.Ullman.. Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation (Third Edition). Pearson Education, Pearson Addison Wesley.
- Manuel Alfonseca, Justo Sancho, Miguel Martínez Orga.. Teoría de lenguajes, gramáticas y autómatas.. Publicaciones R.A.E.C. ISBN: 8460560929. 1997..
- Pedro Isasi, Paloma Martínez y Daniel Borrajo.. Lenguajes, Gramáticas y Autómatas. Un enfoque práctico.. Addison-Wesley, (1997).
- Susan H. Rodger and Thomas W. Finley.. JFLAP: An Interactive Formal Languages and Automata Package. 2006. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA. ISBN 0763738344.

Additional Bibliography

- Brookshear, J. Glenn.. Teoría de la computación : lenguajes formales, autómatas y complejidad.. Addison Wesley Iberoamericana. 1993. ISBN: 9684443846.
- Jeffrey Shallit.. A Second Course in Formal Languages and Automata Theory.. Cambridge University Press, September 30 2008..
- Michael Sipser.. Introduction to the Theory of Computation (2nd Edition) 2006. Thomson Course Technology..
- Peter Linz. An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata. Third Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN: 0763714224..
- R. Penrose. La Nueva Mente del Emperador. Mondadori, 1991..