1. The political processes: revolution, reform, coup d'état, war and reaction.
2. The English Revolution: origins of contemporary parliamentarism.
3. The North American revolution: republic and federalism.
4. The French Revolution: nation of citizens.
5. The Spanish Revolution: the Constitution of 1812.
5. Borders, commune and wars: Europe: 1815-1914.
6. The Russian revolutions: Duma and soviets.