1. Chronological and geographical limits. The "trade" of the Historian of the Modern Age and the basic lines of the current modernist historiographic research.
2. Humanism and the humanists. Scope and diffusion of the new culture.
3. The Protestant reforms. The Catholic reform. The Council of Trent and its projection in Europe.
4. Dynastic rivalries and religious conflicts.
5. The technique and the geographical discoveries.
6. Population and the ancient demographic cycle. Behavior, quantification and distribution.
7. Social organization: estates, orders and social groups.
8. Agricultural expansion, industrial horizon and commercial development.
9. The crisis of the 17th century. Baroque and classicism.
10. The Thirty Years' War and Westphalia. The Europe of Louis XIV and international conflicts.
11. The great colonial empires and the extra-European world.
12. Old and new social and economic attitudes in the 18th century.
13. The Enlightenment and its social projection.
14. International relations in the 18th century.